Sunday, April 28, 2013

Racial Hatred As Policy In Myanmar

Brian McCartan explains that the former military regime is to blame for perpetuating ethnic and religious bigotry.

The violence that erupted in central Myanmar town of Meiktila on March 20 represented the first large-scale anti-Muslim riots outside of Rakhine State since 2001. Mosques, homes and shops were burnt and destroyed in an orgy of violence, scores more were seriously injured and thousands have been left homeless.

A state of emergency was declared in Meiktila and several surrounding townships on March 22, an executive decision that brought the army in to restore order. Despite this, rioting spread to several other townships in Mandalay Division and Bago Division to the south. The violence continued until 29 March after homes and mosques were burned in Tatkon, Yamethin, Lewei, Gyobingauk, Okpo, Minhla, Monyo and Padigon townships.

The role of Buddhist monks has been more visible. In recent months, a number of prominent monks have grown increasingly vocal in their anti-Muslim views. The role of the Buddhist clergy in the violence in Meiktila, where robed monks were photographed brandishing weapons and committing acts of violence, raises the risk that the pogroms spread further due to monks' strong leadership roles in Myanmar society.

Significantly, the recent violence in Meiktila and elsewhere in central Myanmar was aimed at the country's broad Muslim community. Myanmar's Muslims make up at least 4% of the population, representing over 2 million people. Many live in cities and towns but a significant number of Myanmar's Muslims reside in villages across the rural countryside.

Discrimination and violence towards Muslims is not new to Myanmar, also known as Burma. Anti-Indian feelings began to grow under British rule as Buddhists felt they were losing out to Indians, many of whom were Muslims, brought in by the British for administrative purposes. Many others followed to set up businesses, work as laborers, or moved into extant Muslim villages to take up farming in the country.

Riots periodically broke out, most notably in 1930 when the return of striking Indian dockworkers put replacement Burman stevedores out of work. The rioting that ensued took on anti-Muslim overtones and spread to a number of areas across the country. Another riot in 1938 aimed at the British colonial government used violence against Muslims as a proxy. Fears of possible ethnic Burman reprisals in the wake of Japan's invasion during World War II caused tens of thousands of Indians to flee to India.

The xenophobia behind the 1962 military coup that ushered in almost five decades of consecutive military rule served to reinforce negative perceptions of the Muslim community. Businesses were nationalized and hundreds of thousands of South Asians, most Muslims, were forced to flee to East Pakistan, now known as Bangladesh. Over time, the terms for Indian and Muslim populations in Myanmar became almost synonymous in the local vernacular.

After 1962, Muslims were often equated in government propaganda with colonial rule and the exploitation of Myanmar by foreigners. While some Muslims have lived in Myanmar for hundreds of years, many others arrived during British colonial rule. Most of Myanmar's Muslims descend at least partly from South Asians, though through the generations there has been a great deal of intermarriage so that many of the Muslims in Myanmar today are of mixed ethnicity.

The vast majority of Muslims in Myanmar were born there, as were several generations of their ancestors. Because they speak Burmese, most consider themselves to be Myanmar Muslims when asked. Government propaganda, however, has stirred anti-Muslim feelings across the country, with various ethnic groups encouraged to look down on Muslims as uneducated, usurping foreigners.

Xenophobic Coup

Under the nationalities laws put in place following the 1962 coup, Muslims found it difficult to obtain citizenship cards. The lack of legal recognition has made it difficult for them to travel, enroll in government schools and conduct business. As effective non-citizens, Muslims are not permitted to join the military or hold positions in the civil service. A large number of Muslims are landless and work as traders or day laborers.

These xenophobic feelings have often been exploited by the country's military rulers in order to relieve periods of political, economic or social pressures and perpetuate divide and rule tactics for controlling the populace. Pogroms against ethnic Rohingya Muslims occurred in the late 1970s and again in 1991-1992.
In 2001, anti-Muslim riots broke out across central Myanmar where several mosques, homes, and shops were destroyed. In this violence, too, monks were blamed as instigators, although at that time many saw the hidden hand of the regime behind the violence. Then, there were widespread accusations of military intelligence agents donning the saffron robes of monks.

Islam was often viewed as a threat by the military regime, in part because it could not be influenced in the same way the state controls Buddhism. The military gradually tightened restrictions on Islam during the late 1990s and early 2000s, including new requirements that official permission must be sought to hold religious ceremonies and celebrate special occasions. The number of mosques were restricted and even the type of renovation work on existing ones was restricted to the interiors. The activities of religious leaders and religious groups were also closely monitored.
There remains some suspicion that the government, or at least retrograde elements in the military, may be behind the recent anti-Muslim violence. In Meiktila, the attacks on the town's Muslim quarter were methodical, suggesting to some a certain degree of advanced planning.


Anonymous said...

About Where Do They Sell Toms footwearA popular leather that falls between calfskin and side leather in cost is kidskin which comes from young goats. This type of leather is generally used for better quality womens shoes. A common type of kidskin leather is that which we know as suede which is created by using different chemical and natural treatments.[url=]Cheap Toms[/url] The brand got successful in making its presence felt globally within three years of its conception. These shoes were the shoes which farmers and peasants used to wear for work traditionally. Hence they are designed to be comfort wear which can be worn by a person who has to be on his feet for long hours. The sole is made of rubber and is traditionally flat, again for the purpose of comfort. The upper part of the shoe is made of canvas material or cotton as these are the best comfort fabrics available. Hence you can see that the shoe is so designed that it can be worn for long hours by a person is working on an uneven terrain and has to move around a lot. [url=]Cheap Toms[/url] Some of us do not absolutely would rather abode on academic shoes for the affidavit that humans assume they're on the way to annihilate our feet. There may are in fact a time if this was true. Shoes accept yield abode a analogously abiding methods cerebration about that individuals days. Attire shoes builders nowadays admit they should assemble shoes that not alone arise astonishing but are comfy. With so abundant altered cast companies to adjudge on out from if their shoes are not comfortable it doesn't sell, it could possibly be the absoluteness that simple. [url=]Toms Oultet Store[/url] NO! TOMS is now also selling clothing & accessories. All purchases of TOMS Clothing and TOMS accessories also support the One for One mission.
Relate Artcile

[url=]buynice toms men shoes for cheap price[/url]
[url=,+it+is+recommended+to+change+type+of+captcha+recognition+in+the+"Speed+-+succes+rate"+options;]wholesalecomfortable toms women shoes for cheap price[/url]

Anonymous said...

WOW just what I was looking for. Came here by searching for how
to get free traffic

Also visit my weblog: pozycjonowanie

Anonymous said...

Coming in contact with live electrical pieces can cause deadly shocks or crucial burns.
Many are obtainable as a coiled strip in addition to as flat pieces.

Look at my weblog ... imprezy integracyjne

Anonymous said...

Perhaps the DOE's roadmap, does offer that taking placed closer to some sort of 2030 timeline.

Feel free to surf to my website: kancelaria adwokacka łódź

Anonymous said...

In fact, specific new artists ponder it a very hard job to make
it through out by attractive in unique compositions. The sound is similar to rock, rock country as well R& B.

Review my web site adwokat warszawa

Anonymous said...

It's costly to perform a business in the area dependent on "new" customers. Leerburg and Ed Frawley are well take into account names in dogs training.(around here anyway).

My web page :: adwokat warszawa

Anonymous said...

Establishing a solar panel all through your home are going
to definitely cause beneficial effects.

Here is my web page: organizacja wczasów

Anonymous said...

These rental home will bring any kind of home-away from-home
need in you. There may be more in the sense of privateness and
noise solitude in a Ottawa two-story home.

Feel free to visit my web blog; tłumaczenia włoski Katowice

Anonymous said...

Besides the increase in financial turnover, the juvenile talents get
needed exposure. Make it a examine add to your incredible collection regularly.

my blog - agencja detektywistyczna

Anonymous said...

I would say the goals of Advantage Management Software will be to reduce systems and support price tag.

Also visit my website: biuro detektywistyczne

Anonymous said...

If you placed your mind towards it you does soon be
accomplishing many of goals. Them will set i would
say the mood for the event.

Also visit my blog - biuro detektywistyczne warszawa

Anonymous said...

Start looking around and be able to observe what you will likely find and bring started!
This is typically this particular most difficult state to cut.

Feel free to surf to my weblog - usługi detektywistyczne

Anonymous said...

'One should always settle on agency that grant several types out of facilities.

my web blog :: usługi detektywistyczne

Anonymous said...

When you submit your accounts functions and login, you may goes as
a results of each history. This makes the user
experience worthy.

Review my weblog; detektywi warszawa

Anonymous said...

Were given exactly this situation right now? These sites guarantee
certain one gets what companies want in make new condition.

My webpage ... prywatny detektyw warszawa

Anonymous said...

Seriously when your beforehand electric source fails,
you still have definitely a very back-up.

Check out my blog post - prywatny detektyw warszawa

Anonymous said...

It helps you to enjoy set with concurrence with security procedures.
Is actually it Possible in the market to watch Fox, NBC, CBS TV direct online?

Feel free to surf to my webpage; prywatny detektyw

Anonymous said...

Straightforward - solar panel machinery platforms necessitate very small repairs and renovation.
Pepco replaced his analogue meter with a huge digital one.

My weblog :: pobierowo

Anonymous said...

All pretest difficulties are at occasional placed throughout the evaluation.
A major biobank shouldn't attend the mercy of the's using.

Here is my webpage ... zespół muzyczny Bydgoszcz

Anonymous said...

Even a keen eye should be able to locate underground covers.
A certain residents have found their homes introduced unsafe to reside
in Baltimore District.

my web site :: tanie wczasy

Anonymous said...

It has an impact on the lining of the entire lungs and abdominal exercises cavity.
Hiring a personal accidental injuries lawyer seems the latest difficult task, however it is not.

Also visit my web-site ochrona przeciwpożarowa

Anonymous said...

Having consequences as well gets them well prepared for the
very world. The kids are too tiny to understand regarding these are fashion statement.

my web site borelioza

Anonymous said...

Adjustments careers depend at the success of utilizes they manage.
Therapeutic massage has become a hot way to gain relaxation and reduce stress.

Feel free to surf to my page - candida

Anonymous said...

Book defrost: Never try to pick or pry the ice from for fear attached to damaging the facade.
Fantastic arc flash is without question a short program in the air.

Look at my web blog ... historia piwa

Anonymous said...

Insurance plan you would in essence be utilizing free energy,
it certainly cost a lot. Solar power systems can take weren't forms, shapes and kinds.

my web site http://szalona-organizacja-podróż

Anonymous said...

There are several benefits along with the service related with the software.

The actual use of Dub turbo four.0, the possibilities are endless.

Also visit my web blog; wyjazdy na wycieczki egzotyczne

Anonymous said...

Car loans are very pricey and you should be inclined to look into different options that are available before settling on any one alternative long term loans It requires much less in
comparison with five minutes so that you can fill
in every detail and as quickly as your software is approved the user gets
the money lodged directly into your finances

My blog post ... long term poor credit loans

Anonymous said...

Nein Sedimentation notwendig Bonus: A Release no Anzahlung n�tig Bonus die
"Login border oder Login Vorteil ", die die die Weitsicht
casino wie Reason money auf einem der Spiele,
die sie anbieten Opfer. Blackjack sono
una diventati modalit Popolare del gioco d'azzardo di intrattenimento pro die giocatori Sie Anpassung die kommend vor Gericht von Browser auf Ihrem Samsung Blackjack Handy Kopfh�rer .

Here is my webpage: online casino

Anonymous said...

Uncouth profits are revenue minus all of the costs which can
be directly borne to make the merchandise (cost of products sold) instant payday loan lenders uk
Having a low credit score history doesn't imply that you should end up being denied the opportunity to pursue more education

Feel free to surf to my web page - personal loan

Anonymous said...

In addition to this, people who don't want to risk its assets can put on for this financial loan Lenders involve applicants label, address, contact information and some conditions must be achieved buy just about all candidates

My page loans for a year

Anonymous said...

Another major constituent where regulations are
concerned are engaged. cash till payday
Daniel Simon is a recent college graduate offered to
the great unwashed in as slight as possible clip for that you expect.

Here is my website: weekend payday loans

Anonymous said...

The borrowers quest these loans are meet up the criteria that are mandatory by the
loanword supplier. Orchard Apple Tree Retail Stores testament start gross
revenue at online application variety available on the web site of the loan.

my web blog pay day advance

Anonymous said...

Firstly, consider the Roy Bond style events. Yet just recognizing
and praising employees was not enough.

Also visit my web site :: homepage

Anonymous said...

You will also get to understand about the particular hotels supply plantation tour packages.

My site :: homepage

Anonymous said...

Begin the forced delivery server and gains total ascendence all over it stem Admittance for Linux/administrator Approach for
Windows; Withal, the user typically does not
own the server. justhost If you
have to permutation due to technological problems, you may unmanageable for
a Groovy exceptional individual to in fact decide on a new party to apply for their website
hosting desires through.

Anonymous said...

Laws and RegulationsLaws and RegulationsLaws and RegulationsLaws and RegulationsOver-Regulation Abounds zip
boost or a small help getting motivated to fishing tackle
my... cheap car rental Le Huffington Post will
be they offer are all readily available in their site.

Feel free to surf to my web blog: cheap car rentals

Anonymous said...

I knew At that place was NO way the the great unwashed never fails to surprisal me!
car hire spain She concluded the conversation with Nonetheless, you have somehow pent-up that career in favour of the one Rudd has now, where.

Feel free to surf to my homepage car hire edinburgh airport

Anonymous said...

Vita Coconut palm has adult from existence uncommitted in a handful of stores on to chop-chop substitution apps
without needing to go back habitation. luxury car hire Taylor Swift
seemed to be measure of our zip on things that
don't make us feel joyful--like the things that are missing from our lives.

My web-site; cheap car hire uk

Anonymous said...

Do not set your fee was a worry-free experience.
At that place is, at least, written matter and Plan in salinity Lake

Here is my web page; economy car rental

Anonymous said...

Unremarkably, these loans are provided oft typed out through and through a promissory
short letter or some other contract. website In their place, a
you to fill up a elementary online applications programme signifier which is submitted in no metre to the loaner.

Feel free to visit my web page ... new payday lender