- Secular democracies, in secular states such as Azerbaijan and Turkey, that do not recognize any religion as its state religion and, therefore, does not incorporate religious principles into its public policy and other state affairs.
- Religious democracies; that recognize Islam as its state religion and a source of legislation, such as Malaysia and Maldives. The application of religious principles into public policy varies from country to country, since Islam is not the only source of law, such as Pakistan.
- Theocracies; that endeavor to institute Sharia, in full force, and offers more comprehensive inclusion of Islam into the affairs of the state. Presently, Iran is the only example of an Islamic state in the form of Islamic republics.
O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from among you. [Quran 4:59]
…and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then, when thou hast taken a decision put thy trust in Allah. [Quran 3:159][righteous are those] …who conduct their affairs through [shura baynahum] mutual Consultation. [Quran 42:38]